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Compute seawater Conservative Temperature, according to the GSW/TEOS-10 formulation.


  temperature = NULL,
  pressure = NULL,
  longitude = NULL,
  latitude = NULL,
  debug = getOption("oceDebug")



either practical salinity (in which case temperature and pressure must be provided) or an oce object (in which case salinity, etc. are inferred from the object).


in-situ temperature (\(^\circ\)C), defined on the ITS-90 scale; see “Temperature units” in the documentation for swRho().


pressure (dbar)


longitude of observation.


latitude of observation.


an integer specifying whether debugging information is to be printed during the processing. This is a general parameter that is used by many oce functions. Generally, setting debug=0 turns off the printing, while higher values suggest that more information be printed. If one function calls another, it usually reduces the value of debug first, so that a user can often obtain deeper debugging by specifying higher debug values.


Conservative temperature in degrees Celcius.


If the first argument is an oce object, then values for salinity, etc., are extracted from it, and used for the calculation, and the corresponding arguments to the present function are ignored.

The conservative temperature is calculated using the TEOS-10 function gsw::gsw_CT_from_t from the gsw package.


McDougall, T.J. and P.M. Barker, 2011: Getting started with TEOS-10 and the Gibbs Seawater (GSW) Oceanographic Toolbox, 28pp., SCOR/IAPSO WG127, ISBN 978-0-646-55621-5.

See also

The related TEOS-10 quantity “absolute salinity” may be computed with swAbsoluteSalinity(). For a ctd object, conservative temperature may also be recovered by indexing as e.g. ctd[["conservativeTemperature"]] or ctd[["CT"]].

Other functions that calculate seawater properties: T68fromT90(), T90fromT48(), T90fromT68(), computableWaterProperties(), locationForGsw(), swAbsoluteSalinity(), swAlpha(), swAlphaOverBeta(), swBeta(), swCSTp(), swDepth(), swDynamicHeight(), swLapseRate(), swN2(), swPressure(), swRho(), swRrho(), swSCTp(), swSR(), swSTrho(), swSigma(), swSigma0(), swSigma1(), swSigma2(), swSigma3(), swSigma4(), swSigmaT(), swSigmaTheta(), swSoundAbsorption(), swSoundSpeed(), swSpecificHeat(), swSpice(), swSpiciness0(), swSpiciness1(), swSpiciness2(), swSstar(), swTFreeze(), swTSrho(), swThermalConductivity(), swTheta(), swViscosity(), swZ()


Dan Kelley


swConservativeTemperature(35, 10, 1000, 188, 4) # 9.86883
#> [1] 9.86883