Estimate the integral of one-dimensional function using the trapezoidal rule.

integrateTrapezoid(x, y, type = c("A", "dA", "cA"), xmin, xmax)


x, y

vectors of x and y values. In the normal case, these vectors are both supplied, and of equal length. There are also two special cases. First, if y is missing, then x is taken to be y, and a new x is constructed as seq_along(y)1. Second, if length(x)is 1 andlength(y)exceeds 1, thenxis replaced byx*[seq_along](y)`.


Flag indicating the desired return value (see “Value”).

xmin, xmax

Optional numbers indicating the range of the integration. These values may be used to restrict the range of integration, or to extend it; in either case, approx() with rule=2 is used to create new x and y vectors.


If type="A" (the default), a single value is returned, containing the estimate of the integral of y=y(x). If type="dA", a numeric vector of the same length as x, of which the first element is zero, the second element is the integral between x[1] and x[2], etc. If type="cA", the result is the cumulative sum (as in cumsum()) of the values that would be returned for type="dA". See “Examples”.


There is no handling of NA values.


x <- seq(0, 1, length.out=10) # try larger length.out to see if area approaches 2 y <- 2*x + 3*x^2 A <- integrateTrapezoid(x, y) dA <- integrateTrapezoid(x, y, "dA") cA <- integrateTrapezoid(x, y, "cA") print(A)
#> [1] 2.006173
#> [1] 2.006173
print(tail(cA, 1))
#> [1] 2.006173
print(integrateTrapezoid(diff(x[1:2]), y))
#> [1] 2.006173
#> [1] 18.05556