Introduction
Through the early months of 2015, efforts were made to incorporate PROJ.4
projections into the oce R package. An earlier attempt had relied on the proj4
package, but this package has the disadvantage of reporting an error if any
point in a polygon cannot be projected, so it had to be called pointwise on
coastline vectors, at significant time cost (minutes for many practical cases).
The next step was to incorporate PROJ.4 code into oce itself. This was used in
oce version 0.9-17, available on the CRAN archive. However, a CRAN member
suggested removing the PROJ.4 code from oce when 0.9-17 was being vetted, and
so I started exploring the use of the rgdal package. At the moment, this work
is only on the git branch named project_with_rgdal
. The results with this
version of oce seem to be very close to those with the previous system, with
differences only in the cases where extraneous lines are seen.
Note that only PROJ.4 projections that have inverses are available in oce.
This is because oce needs to do inverse projections for some of its plotting
operations. Also note that a handful of projections have not been incorporated,
because they cause errors of various sorts; see oce issue
635 for more on this.
I will not explain the methodology of projection here, nor the details of any
given projection. Readers should consult the help for the oce
function
mapPlot()
and the many websites detailing software that serives from
PROJ.4. In due course, they will be able to consult my
book .
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13 library ( oce )
data ( coastlineWorld )
cl45 <- coastlineCut ( coastlineWorld , lon_0 = -45 )
par ( mar = rep ( 2 , 4 ))
line <- 0.25
pcol <- "blue"
ecol <- "red"
font <- 2
p <- "+proj=aea +lat_1=10 +lat_2=60 +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 45 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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4 p <- "+proj=aeqd +lon_0=-45"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p ,
longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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5 p <- "+proj=aitoff +lon_0=-45"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p ,
longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Extraneous lines" , line = line , adj = 0 , col = ecol , font = font )
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5 p <- "+proj=aitoff +lon_0=-45"
mapPlot ( cl45 , projection = p ,
longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Using coastlineCut()" , line = line +0.9 , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=bipc"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 70 , 110 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=bonne +lat_1=45"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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4 p <- "+proj=cass +lon_0=-45"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Extraneous lines" , line = line , adj = 0 , col = ecol , font = font )
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5 p <- "+proj=cass +lon_0=-45"
mapPlot ( cl45 , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Using coastlineCut()" , line = line +0.9 , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Extraneous lines" , line = line , adj = 0 , col = ecol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=cc"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( -40 , 40 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=cea"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=collg"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=crast"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=eck1"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=eck2"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=eck3"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=eck4"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=eck5"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=eck6"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=eqc"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=euler +lat_1=45 +lat_2=50 +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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4 p <- "+proj=etmerc +ellps=WGS84 +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Extraneous lines" , line = line , adj = 0 , col = ecol , font = font )
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5 p <- "+proj=etmerc +ellps=WGS84 +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( cl45 , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Using coastlineCut()" , line = line +0.9 , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Extraneous lines" , line = line , adj = 0 , col = ecol , font = font )
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4 p <- "+proj=fahey"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( "+proj=fahey" , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=fouc"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=fouc_s"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=gall"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=geos +h=1e8"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=gn_sinu +n=6 +m=3"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=gnom +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( -30 , 30 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=goode"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=hatano"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=healpix"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2 p <- "+proj=rhealpix"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p ) # + north_square = 1 + south_square = 2 " )
## Error in seq.default(-90 + small, 90 - small, dlatitude): invalid (to - from)/by in seq(.)
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2 mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Extraneous lines" , line = line , adj = 0 , col = ecol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=igh"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=imw_p +lat_1=10 +lat_2=70 +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=kav5"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=kav7"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=laea +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( "+proj=laea +lon_0=-40" , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=lonlat"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( "+proj=lonlat" , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=latlon"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( "+proj=lonlat" , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=lcc +lat_1=30 +lat_2=70 +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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4 p <- "+proj=lcca +lat_0=20 +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Extraneous lines" , line = line , adj = 0 , col = ecol , font = font )
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5 p <- "+proj=lcca +lat_0=20 +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( cl45 , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Using coastlineCut()" , line = line +0.9 , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Extraneous lines" , line = line , adj = 0 , col = ecol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=leac +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=loxim"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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5 p <- "+proj=lsat +lsat=1 +path=200"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p ,
longitudelim = c ( -180 , -120 ), latitudelim = c ( 70 , 120 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Extraneous lines" , line = line , adj = 0 , col = ecol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=mbt_s"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=mbt_fps"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=mbtfpp"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=mbtfpq"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=mbtfps"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=merc"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 45 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=mil_os"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 70 , 120 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=mill"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=moll"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=murd1 +lat_1=30 +lat_2=60 +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 45 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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4 p <- "+proj=murd2 +lat_1=30 +lat_2=60 +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 45 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Extraneous lines" , line = line , adj = 0 , col = ecol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=murd3 +lat_1=30 +lat_2=60 +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 45 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=natearth"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=nell"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=nell_h"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=nsper +h=90000000"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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6 p <- "+proj=ob_tran"
## mapPlot(coastlineWorld, projection=p, longitudelim=c(-180,-120), latitudelim=c(-50,-20))
plot ( 0 : 1 , 0 : 1 , axes = FALSE , type = 'n' , xlab = "" , ylab = "" )
box ()
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Usage?" , line = line , adj = 0 , col = ecol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=ocea"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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3
4 p <- "+proj=omerc +lat_1=30 +lon_1=-40 +lat_2=60"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Extraneous lines" , line = line , adj = 0 , col = ecol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=ortho"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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4 p <- "+proj=pconic +lat_1=20 +lat_2=60 +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Extraneous lines" , line = line , adj = 0 , col = ecol , font = font )
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3 p <- "+proj=poly +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=putp1"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=putp2"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=putp3"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=putp5"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=putp6"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=putp3p"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=putp5p"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=putp6p"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=qua_aut"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=qsc +lon_0=-100"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , grid = 15 , fill = 'lightgray' )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=robin"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=rouss +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 45 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=sinu"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=stere +lat_0=90"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 70 , 110 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=sterea +lat_0=90"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 70 , 110 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3
4 p <- "+proj=tcea +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Extraneous lines" , line = line , adj = 0 , col = ecol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=tissot +lat_1=20 +lat_2=60 +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=tmerc +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3
4 p <- "+proj=tpeqd +lat_1=30 +lon_1=-80"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 60 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
mtext ( "Extraneous lines" , line = line , adj = 0 , col = ecol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=tpers +h=1e8"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=ups +ellps=WGS84"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 70 , 110 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=urmfps +n=0.9"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=utm +ellps=WGS84 +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 45 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=vandg"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=vitk1 +lat_1=20 +lat_2=60 +lon_0=-40"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p , longitudelim = c ( -80 , 0 ), latitudelim = c ( 0 , 45 ))
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=wag1"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=wag2"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
1
2
3 p <- "+proj=wag3"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
1
2
3 p <- "+proj=wag4"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=wag5"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=wag6"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=weren"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=wink1"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
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2
3 p <- "+proj=wintri"
mapPlot ( coastlineWorld , projection = p )
mtext ( p , line = line , adj = 1 , col = pcol , font = font )
References and resources
Oce website
Jekyll source code for this blog entry: 2015-04-03-oce-proj.Rmd